Posts tagged ‘war’

400 Year Old Dutch Clay Pipe

I thought I’d share with you one of my favorite pipes. I’m fascinated with Dutch history around 1602 with the Dutch East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie). They established colonial Dutch Indonesia, which is my heritage.

This pipe has been dated to the mid-1600’s. I’ve included a contemporary pipe for size comparison.

2006 04 24 Pipes 12006 04 24 Pipes 2

Clay pipes were used in inns during that period. The pipe would start out about the size of a Churchwarden, but as each new guest used them for smoking, they would break off a piece of the stem so they’d have a fresh smoke. This pipe measures about 6 inches, which is pretty long for a surviving pipe from this period.

1629 Historia BelgicaIt’s a nice accompaniment to a 1629 edition I have of Historia Belgica. The Netherlands emerged from the 1558-1567 war between the Low Countries (roughly Belgium, The Netherlands and pieces of Germany) and Spain. The book is a history of that period of time. The author of this book is pro-Spain. This is from my personal collection. This is printed on vellum, the book is bound in goatskin, and this is a Latin translation.

Thinking About War

I grew up with the Vietnam war on television as a child. It was on the news every night; body counts, politicians, soldiers going to war, scenes of combat. I was very young then, and I remember my grandmother crying when I asked her when I would have to go too. I didn’t know any better. I thought you grew up, then went to the war. That was just the way it was supposed to be. I was maybe 6 in 1969 when I asked her. It seemed endless, to me, to friends and family.

I wonder how many children are thinking the same thing now, growing up with the Iraq war on their television sets every night.

Chronological Summary of Events In the Former Dutch East Indies, From December 3, 1941 to December 31, 1942

December 3, 1941:
Mobilization of the Nederlandse Militaire Luchtvaart (Dutch Royal Air Force).
December 7, 1941:
The battle of Pearl Harbor.
The Dutch overnment declares war on Japan.
December 10, 1941:
Successful Japanese landing in the Philippines.
Loss of the British battle ship Repulse and the Prince of Wales off east coast of Malaysia.
December 16, 1941:
Miri in British North Borneo (Serawak) occupied.
December 17, 1941:
Landing of Allied military forces (two-thirds Dutch and one-third Australian troops) on Portugese Island Timor near Dilli takes place without any resistence.
December 19, 1941:
Bombardment of Pontianak (Kalimatan) with extensive damage and 500 persons wounded or dead.
December 21, 1941:
Bombardment of airfield Singkawang II in West Borneo (now Kalimantan).
December 23, 1941:
Second bombardment of airfield Singkawang II.
December 24, 1941:
Kuching in British North Borneo (Serawak) occupied by Japanese forces.
December 25, 1941:
Third bombardment of airfield Sinkawang II.
December 27, 1941:
Occupation of the Tambelan Isands west of Kalimantan by Japanese forces.
December 29, 1941:
The 2nd battalion of the 15th Regiment Punjabi, defenders of Miri and Kuching, falls back on Singkawang II after suffering considerable losses.
December 31, 1941:
Japanese fighters machine gun the harbor and airfield of Tarakan Island and surrounding area of Menado off East Kalimantan (Sulawesi).
January 1, 1942:
Start of guerrilla activities in West Kalimantan.
January 3, 1942:
British General Sir Archibald P. Wavell is appointed commander-in-chief of the American, British, Dutch and Australian forces.
January 4, 1942:
Successful attack by eight Flying Fortresses from airfield in Malang, East Java, on the Japanese fleet near Davao (Mindanao), Philippines.
January 5, 1942:
Occupation of Brunei and the island of Labuan off Sabah.
January 8, 1942:
Bombardment of Tarakan Island.
Repeat bombardment of Davao.
January 9, 1942:
Occupation of the island of Jolo, southwest of Mindanao.
Repeat bombardment of Tarakan.
January 10, 1942:
General Wavell arrives in Java.
Bombardment of airfield near Balikpapan, Kalimantan.
January 11, 1942:
Landing in Menado (Sulawesi).
Landing of paratroopers in Menado.
Landings in Tarakan.
January 12, 1942:
Dutch troops capitulate in Tarakan after heavy fighting.
Dutch troops in Menado move inland to wage guerilla war.
Heavy bombardment of Ternate (Molucca).
January 13, 1942:
Bombardment of harbor of Balikpapan.
Heavy bombardment of airfield near Ambon.
January 15, 1942:
Bombardment of Balikpapan.
Bombardment of airfield near Ambon.
January 16, 1942:
Bombardment of Kendari II airfield near Medan, area near Balikpapan and the harbor of Ambon.
January 17, 1942:
Bombardment of airfields in Pakanbaru (Sumatra), Dilli (Timor) and Ambon.
January 18, 1942:
Airfield Singkawang II destroyed.
Bombing raid on Balikpapan.
Arrival in Malaysia of four brigades of Dutch Corps Marachaussee from Aceh, north Sumatra, for guerilla activities behind enemy lines.
January 19, 1942:
Bombardment of Sabang and Bandjarmasin.
January 20, 1942:
Military forces in Balikpapan receive an ultimatum from the Japanese commander of Tarakan. Military commander in Balikpapan orders destruction of the oil installation and manufacturing center.
Bombardment of Medan and Bandjarmasin.
January 21, 1942:
Bombardment of Sabang and Belawan (Medan harbor), Sumatra.
January 22, 1942:
Second bombardment of Sabang and Belawan.
January 23, 1942:
Dutch bombers launch a successful air raid on transport fleet in Makassar Strait near Balikpapan.
Bombardments of Samarinda and Manokwari (Irian Jaya).
January 24, 1942:
Landing and occupation of Balikpapan.
Bombardment of airfield Samarinda II.
Landing on eastern shore of southeast Sulawesi and conquest of airport Kendari II.
January 25, 1942:
Heavy bombardment of Ambon and airfield Samarinda II.
Bombardment of airfield Namlea (Buru Island).
January 26, 1942:
Bombardment of Sabang, airfield Samarinda II and airfields near Ujung Padang (Sulawesi) and in Timor.
Landing on west coast of Kalimantan.
January 27, 1942:
Bombardment of Padang harbor and airfields near Bandjarmasin and Namlea.
Landing in West Kalimantan near Singkawang.
January 28, 1942:
Bombardment of Bangka, Belitung (off Sumatra’s east coast), harbor of Padang and airports in Sulawesi.
January 29, 1942:
Bombardment of Sabang and Padang.
Occupation of Pontianak, Kalimantan.
January 30, 1942:
Bombardment of Ambon, Sabang and airports in southeast Kalimantan and Timor.
January 31, 1942:
Superior Japanese troops land on the north and south coasts of the island of Ambon.
February 1, 1942:
City of Ambon occupied.
Heavy bombardment of Palembang (Sumatra) and the airfields near Timor Kupang.
Japanese advance to Bandjarmasin.
February 3, 1942:
Bombardment of Surabaya and the airfields near Malang and Madiun in East Java.
The Japanese occupy Samarinda (Kalimantan).
February 4, 1942:
Bombardment of Timor Kupang.
February 5, 1942:
Bombardment of Ujung Padang and vicinity, Timor Kupang, Surabaya, airfields Denpasar (Bali) and near Palembang.
February 7, 1942:
Bombardment of the airfields near Palembang. A considerable number of British airplanes are lost.
Bombardment of airfield near Bogor, West Java.
Bombardment of Surabaya, East Java.
Ambon falls into Japanese hands.
February 8, 1942:
Bombardment of airfield near Palembang.
Destruction of Bandjarmasin and nearby airfield.
February 9, 1942:
Landing of Japanese troops on the west coast of Celebes near Ujung Padang.
Bombardments of airfields in the vicinity of Jakarta, Pakanbaru (Sumatra) and Malang.
Japanese troops land on the north side of Singapore Island.
February 11, 1942:
Oil installations in Pulusambu (south of Singapore,) Pangkalanberandan and Pangkalansusu (Sumatra) destroyed according to plans.
February 12, 1942:
Airfield Namlea occupied by Japanese forces.
February 13, 1942:
Bombardment of airfields in Timor and Sumatra.
Bandjarmasin occupied by enemy forces.
February 14, 1942:
Japanese paratroopers land in the vicinity of Palembang but are driven off by Dutch troops.
Dutch forces leave the Riau Archipelago en route to south Sumatra after execution of demolitions.
February 15, 1942:
Japanese forces land in the vicinity of Palembang.
Demolitions of Sungaigerong (Sumatra) emplacements executed.
Fall of Singapore.
February 16, 1942:
Dutch airplanes partially destroy an oil emplacement in Plaju, Sumatra.
February 17, 1942:
Heavy bombardment of Timor Kupang. Enemy transport approaches Timor Kupang. Planned demolition is carried out.
February 18, 1942:
Heavy bombardment of Surabaya. Japanese forces land on Bali. Den Pasar occupied.
February 19, 1942:
Heavy bombardment of airfields near Bogor and Bandung, West Java
Bombardment of airfields in Kalijati and near Malang.
Babo (Irian Jaya) occupied by Japanese forces.
Landing of Japanese paratroopers near Timor Kupang.
Night landing of Japanese troops west of Timor Dilli.
February 21, 1942:
Timor Kupang occupied by enemy.
Bombardment of Surabaya, Malang, Madiun, and airfield Kilijati.
February 22, 1942:
Bombardment of airfields near Jakarta, Bogor, Yogyakarta and Malang.
February 23, 1942:
Bombardment of airfield near Malang.
February 24, 1942:
Bombardment of Tandjungpriok and Surabaya, airfields near Batavia (Jakarta) and Kalijati.
February 25, 1942:
Bangka occupied by Japanese forces.
February 27, 1942:
Bombardment of Tandjungpriok and airfield near Bogor.
Aircraft carrier Langly with 30 ready-to-use fighters on board sunk by the Japanese.
The Battle of the Java Sea lost.
February 28, 1942:
Bombardment of airfields near Surabaya.
March 1, 1942:
Landing of approximately seven Japanese divisions on Java in northwest Banten, near Eretan, west of Indramayu and in Kragan, east of Rembang.
Japanese take Subang and the airfield in Kalijati by surprise.
March 4, 1942:
Heavy bombardments in the mountain passes north of Bandung.
Tangerang (east of Jakarta), Leuwillang (west of Bogor), Cikampek, Blora, Cepoe and Bojonegoro occupied by Japanese.
Air raid on Cilacap, Central Java.
March 5, 1942:
Jakarta declared an open city and occupied by Japanese forces.
Heavy bombardment of Cilacap.
Bombardment of Bandung.
Surakarta occupied by the Japanese.
March 6, 1942:
Bombardment of Bandung and vicinity.
March 7, 1942:
State of affairs in Java very precarious.
Bandung threatened.
No Dutch air support available.
March 8, 1942:
Under threat of complete destruction of Bandung, Dutch forces decide to capitulate.
March 9, 1942:
Commander of the Dutch forces in central Sumatra decides to continue fighting in order to force prolonged stay of Japanese troops. The fighting in Timor and Central Sulawesi continues.
March 12, 1942:
Landing of Japanese troops on the east coast of Sumatra near Idi and south of Medan new Tandjungtiram.
Landing on Sabang.
March 13, 1942:
Medan occupied.
March 17, 1942:
Padang occupied.
March 19, 1942:
Takengon in Aceh (Sumatra) occupied.
March 27, 1942:
Guerrilla troops in central Celebes capitulate.
March 28, 1942:
Military commanders of central and north Sumatra decide to capitulate.
March 29, 1942:
Ternate occupied.
April 1, 1942:
Atambua (Timor) occupied.
April 12, 1942:
Manokwari (Irian Jaya) occupied. Dutch troops go inland and continue guerrilla activities until September 1944.
July 21, 1942:
Dutch and Australian troops reinforce the garrison at Marauke (Irian Jaya).
July 30, 1942:
Landing on Tanimbar Island, Australia.
December 10, 15, 18, 1942:
Evacuation of Allied guerrilla troops from Timor to Australia.
December 31, 1942:
Fighting continues in Irian Jaya.
One of the Dutch posts was attacked by Papua tribes under direction of Japanese. The Dutch side suffered some losses.

Source: Gedenkboek van de KNIL, Amersfoort: N.V. Drukkerij G.J. van Amerongen & Co, 1961. Translated by Denis Dutrieux and used without permission of Vereniging Madjoe in Holland.